SENTENCE STRUCTURE (2): conjunctions

1. DEFINITION
Conjunctions are words that join clauses into sentences.
Example: I went to bed early because I was extremely tired. (CLAUSE: I went to bed and I was extremely tire; CONJUNCTION: because)
Conjunctions not join clauses together; they also show how the meaning of the two clauses are related.
Examples:
We brought the food 'and' they supplied the drink. (addition)
She was poor 'but' she was honest. (contrast)
We can go swimming 'or' we could stay here. (alternative)
People disliked her 'because' she was so rude. (cause)
I'll phone you 'when' I arrive. (time)
2. KINDS
1. Co-ordinating conjunctions; like 'and', 'but' and 'or' - they join pairs of clauses that are grammatically independent to each other.
2. Subordinating conjunctions; like 'because', 'when', 'that', or 'which' - together with its following clause acts like a part of other clause.
Examples:
a. I'll phone you 'tomorrow'. (ADVERB: tomorrow)
b. I'll phone you 'when I arrive'. (when I arrive is similar to tomorrow - it acts like an adverb in the clause 'I'll phone you...')
c. He told me 'a lie'. (OBJECT: a lie)
d. He told me 'that he loved me'. (that he loved me is similar to a lie - it is the object in the clause 'He told me...')
e. It is an 'unanswerable' question. (ADJECTIVE: unanswerable)
f. It's a question 'which nobody can answer'. (which nobody can answer is similar to unanswerable - it acts like an adjective in the clause 'It's a question...')

Note: Some conjunctions are made up of two words, like: I stayed an extra night 'so that' I could see Ann.
Let me know 'the moment that' you arrive.

- Subordinate clause or dependent clauses - clauses that follow subordinating conjunctions.
Fee
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