|1. Reporting Past Tenses|
As a rule, a speaker's past tense is reported in past perfect tense in indirect speech.
Direct: I've just called Ana.
Indirect: He told me she had just called Ana.
|Direct: I went hiking yesterday with Lois.|
Indirect: She said she had gone hiking with Lois yesterday.
|2. Reporting Present And Future Tenses|
In cases where the speakers uses present or future tense, it can be reported in the same tense or change it after a past reporting verb.
Direct: The sun rises in the east.
Indirect: He confirmed that the sun rises/rose in the east.
|Direct: How is your report?|
Indirect: Hey, I asked how is/was your report?
|3. Modal Verbs in Indirect Speech|
In indirect speech, the modal verbs (would, should, could, might, ought, and must) aren't changed after past reporting verbs.
Direct: It would make me happy if we could go to Disneyland.
Indirect: James said it would make him happy if we could go to Disneyland.
|Direct: You could be in danger out there.|
Indirect: Thelma said I could be in danger out there.
|4. Reporting (Shall I...?)|
In reporting "Shall I..," there are plenty of ways to report it depending on the purpose of the speaker (asking information or offering).
Direct: Shall I make you coffee? (offer)
Indirect: She wants to know if she should/can make you coffee.
|Direct: Shall I be needed to report to the headquarters? (information)|
Indirect: He wants to know if he will be needed to report to the headquarters.
Sentences with if and would are not changed after past reporting verbs.
Direct: It would be best if we take the car.
Indirect: He said it would be best if we take the car.
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